1 Abu'l Fida, At Tawarikhu'l Qadimah (Hist. Ante-Islamica), p. 148.

2 Vide also p. 269.

3 Vide pp. 127, 128.

4 Vide pp. 182 sqq.

5 The Ebionites, too, seem to have had an influence on the religion of Islam when gradually taking shape in Muhammad's mind, which seems at the time to have been singularly receptive and credulous. "Epiphanius (Haer. x) describes the notions of the Ebionites of Nabathaea, Moabitis, and Basanitis with regard to Adam and Jesus, almost in the very words of Surah III., 52. He tells us that they observed circumcision, were opposed to celibacy, forbade turning to the sunrise but enjoined Jerusalem as their Qiblah (as did Muhammad during twelve years), that they prescribed (as did the Sabians) washings, very similar to those enjoined in the Qur'an, and allowed oaths (by certain natural objects, as clouds, signs of the Zodiac, oil, the winds, &c.) which also we find adopted therein. These points of contact with Islam, knowing as we do Muhammad's eclecticism, can hardly be accidental" (Rodwell, Koran, Pref., p. xviii).

6 Sir W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, 3rd ed., Introd., pp. xcii, xciii.

7 Surah IV., An Nisa, 124.

8 In Nov., A.D. 623: Surah II., Al Baqarah, 136-40.

9 When at a later period the month of Ramadan was appointed instead as a month of fasting. Muhammad did not forbid that observance of the Ashura on the tenth day of Muharram (Cf. Lev. xxiii. 27).

10 Sir W. Muir, op. cit., p. 188.

11 Lev. xvi; Heb. vii. 27.

12 Cf. e.g. Surah XXIX., Al 'Ankabut, 45; Surah II., Al Baqarah, 130; &c.

13 Most of the instances here cited are taken from Rabbi Abraham Geiger's book Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen?

14 On Gen. iv. 8.

15 Vide pp. 133-5.

16 Gen. iv. 10.

17 The Jewish narrative quoted above from the Pirqéy Rabbi Eli'ezer contains the expression miyyadh ("out of hand") for "immediately." This expression (in Arabic ) occurs also in the Arabic in Surah IX., At Taubah 29, "until they give the tribute out of hand," where it has puzzled commentators.

18 In Surahs Al Baqarah (II., 260), Al An'am (VI., 74-84), Al Anbiya (XXI., 52-72), Maryam (XIX., 42-50), Ash Shu'ara (XXVI., 69-79), Al 'Ankabut (XXIX., 15, 16), As Saffat (XXXVII., 81-95), Az Zukhruf (XLIII., 25-7), Al Mumtahinah (LX., 4), &c.

19 Historia Ante-Islamica (ed. Fleischer, Leipzig, 1831). Abu'l Fida was born in A.H. 672.

20 This term will be explained in Chapter vi.

21 The italicized passages are from Surah VI., Al An'am, 76-9.

22 Surah VI., Al An'am, 80-3.

23 Surah XIX., Maryam, 43.

24 Surah XXVI., Ash Shu'ara, 75-7.

25 Surah II., Al Baqarah, 26.

26 He had remained at home on the plea of being ill, Surah XXXVII., As Saffat, 87.

27 Ibid. vv. 89-91.

28 Surah XXI., Al Anbiya, 59; and Jalalain's Commentary.

29 Surah XXI., 60-5.

30 Ibid. vv. 66-8.

31 Doubtless a reminiscence of the fate of Korah, Numb. xvi, 31-4.

32 Surah XXXVII., 95.

33 Surah XXXIX., 39.

34 Surah III., 167.

35 Surah XXI., 69.

36 Midrash Rabba, Chapter xvii, in explanation of Gen. xv. 7.

37 This argument is used in the Mizanu'l Mawazin in refutation of certain statements in the Mizanu'l Haqq.

38 Cf. Gen. xi. 28, xv. 7, &c.

39 That it had a good excuse for absence.

40 The Arabic form is Saba, since the Hebrew sh often becomes s in Arabic.

41 Or "As Muslims."

42 i.e. In the twinkling of an eye.

43 Or "Become a Muslim."

44 Vide I Kings x. 18 sqq., and 2 Chron. ix. 17 sqq.

45 That is, "I shall," &c.

46 Or rather perhaps from the Persian story of Jamshid, which seemed to suit Solomon because of the misunderstanding referred to in the text. Vide pp. 249, 250.

47 Vide pp. 107, 108.

48 Entir Hatouadsner, pt. 1, p. 127.

49 Chapter v.

50 Translated from the original, which is printed and incorrectly translated in Trans. Soc. Bibl. Archaeology, vol. II., pt. 1., pp. 104, 105, 115.

51 Sundopasundopákhyânam.

52 It is interesting to note that the Samaritan Targum to the Pentateuch (published by Dr. Adolf Brüll, Frankfurt, 1875) practically gives the same explanation. It paraphrases "sons of God" by "sons of the governors." The original runs thus

53 Greek fragments of the Book of Enoch, capp. vi-viii, ed. Dr. Swete, who also gives the same passages from Syncellus. In the Persian Yanábi'u'l Islâm I quoted and translated the Æthiopic text, as the Greek had not then been recovered, or at least published.

54 Surah II., Al Baqarah, verse 96, fin.

55 That we may understand this better, we have only to consider the amount of error introduced into the Christian Church by a similar expression "This is My body."

56 v. 90; cf. Surah VII., 147.

57 Cf. Jer. x. 11.

58 Jalalain's note on the passage says: "God knows best what He meant by Qaf."

59 pp. 7, 8.

60 Surah L., 1.

61 Cf. Avestic Mt. Berez (Kanga's Avestic Dict., s. v.).

62 So also in Surah LXVII., 3, and Surah LXXVIII., 12.

63 Vide 'Araisu'l Majalis, pp. 5-9.

64 In Sanskrit go (ox, cow) is used of the Earth in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, &c. The same word in the Avesta (gao, also gao-speñta, "the holy cow") is used similarly. Cf. and : Goth. gavi (Kuh, cow), and Germ. Gau, in all of which the same connexion of ideas may be traced.

65 Jalalain, 'Abbasi, &c.

66 Kanga's Avestic Dictionary, s. v., p. 408.

67 pp. 52, 53.

68 Matt. xv. 6; Mk. vii. 13, &c.

69 Matt. vi. 5.

70 Arbah Turim, Ev. Hazaer, 1. For this reference I am indebted to a note, p. 451, in Rodwell's Koran, where it is added "See also Yad Hachazakah Hilchoth Ishuth, 14, 3."

71 But we are not destitute of traditions, whatever value we may attach to them, which assert that Muhammad could write, and therefore read. Bukhari and Muslim quote traditions to the effect that when the Treaty of Hudaibah was being signed, Muhammad took the pen from 'Ali and struck out the words in which the latter had designated him ''Apostle of God," substituting in his own handwriting the words "Son of 'Abdu'llah." Again, tradition tells is that, when be was dying, Muhammad called for pen and ink to write directions intended to prevent his followers from disputing about his successor; but his strength failed him. This latter tradition rests upon the authority of Ibn Abbas, and is reported by Bukhari and Muslim. It is well known as forming a subject of controversy between Sunnis and Shi'ahs.

72 In fact, in Surah X., Yunus, 94, Muhammad is bidden to ask the People of the Book for information to clear up his doubts.

73 See the quotation from Ibn Ishaq, pp. 264, 265 below.