Revealed at Makkah.


THIS chapter begins with very much the same language, and the style and composition throughout is much the same, as that of chapters lxxxi. and lxxxii. We cannot, therefore, err much if we regard it

Probable Date of the Revelations.

to be about the same. With this opinion both Muir and NoŽldeke seem to agree, as these chapters are brought quite near together in their chronological lists.

Principal Subjects.

Signs of the judgment-day . . . 1-5
The books of the righteous and the wicked given into their hands, and the consequence thereof . . . 6-15
Oaths attesting the doctrine of the resurrection . . . 16-20
The unbelievers denounced and threatened . . . 21-25


R 1/9.

(1) When the heaven shall be rent in sunder, (2) and shall obey its LORD, and shall be capable thereof; (3) and when the earth shall be stretched out, (4) and shall cast

(3) The earth . . . stretched out. "Like a skin, every mountain ana hill being leveled."-Sale.


forth that which is therein, and shall remain empty, (5) and shall obey its LORD, and shall be capable thereof: (6) O man, verily labouring thou labourest to meet thy LORD, and thou shalt meet him. (7) And he who shall have his book given into his right hand (8) shall be called to an easy account, (9) and shall turn unto his family with joy; (10) but he who shall have his book given him behind his back (11) shall invoke destruction to fall upon him, (12) and he shall be sent into hell to be burned; (13) because he rejoiced insolently amidst his family on earth (14) Verily he thought he should never return unto God: (15) yea, verily, but his LORD beheld him. (16) Wherefore I swear by the redness of the sky after sunset, (17) and by the night, and the animals which it driveth together, (18) and by the moon when she is in the full, (19) ye shall surely be transferred successively from state to state. (20) What aileth them, therefore, that they believe not the resurrection, (21) and that, when the Quran is read unto them, they worship not? (22) Yea, the unbelievers accuse the same of imposture; (23) but God well knoweth the malice which they keep hidden in their breasts. (24) Wherefore denounce unto them a grievous punishment, (25) except those who believe and do good works: for them is prepared a never-failing reward.

(4) That which is therein. "As the treasures hidden in its bowels, and the dead bodies which lie in their graves."- Sale.

(6) Thou shalt meet him. "Or, and thou shalt meet thy labour; whether thy works be good or whether they be evil."-Sale.

(9) His family, i.e., " his relations and friends who are true believers; or rather, to his wives and servants, or the damsels and youths of Paradise, who wait to receive him."Sale, Baidhawi.

(10) Behind his back. "That is, into his left hand; for the wicked will have that hand bound behind their back, and their right hand to their neck."-Sale.

(19) From state to state, i.e., "from the state of the living to that of the dead, and from the state of the dead to a new state of life in another world."-Sale.

(21) Worship not. "Or, humble not themselves."-Sale.

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