THE COLLECTION OF THE QUR'AN - from the hadiths

This is a collection of hadiths and Muslim explanations relating to the collection of the Qur'an into a codex. Much of the material is taken from John Burton's book : The Collection of the Qur'an, 1977 with some additions found elsewhere. Wherever references are given in the book, these are also given here. Typo errors are mine. The quotations are mostly made with no comments. Most of the statements outside of the actual quotations of hadiths and Muslim scholars are actually Burton's. My own comments beyond the introduction are in [. . .]. (I need to format them better to reflect this, if time permits).

References to his book are given in the following manner:

(p. 118, Ahmad b. `Ali b. Muhammad al `Asqalani, ibn Hajar, "Fath al Bari", 13 vols, Cairo, 1939/1348, vol. 9, p. 9)
which means that it is in p. 118 of his book, and his source (which he gave) is ibn Hajar's "Fath al Bari", etc....

Summary of Burton's thesis

Burton's thesis was that the `Uthmanic codex was the same as that of Muhammad (i.e. today's Qur'an is the same as the Qur'an during Muhammad's time). Contrary to usual scholars who take the hadiths to be true, Burton attempted to show that the hadith differences were due to disputes among the different schools (madhab). He theorized that these hadiths were fabricated to further the views of the individual schools. While his thesis found little assent among the scholarly circle, his research, especially the hadiths he quoted in his book, provided much valuable insights into the different hadiths related to this issue.


1  Introduction
2  The first collection of the Qur'an
   2.1  Not assembled during the time of Muhammad
   2.2  by Salim
   2.3  by Abu Bakr
   2.4  by `Umar
   2.5  by `Uthman
   2.6  by `Ali
   2.7  Khuzaima and Q 9:128-129
   2.8  Reconciliation of different reports
   2.9  Personal codices of the Qur'an
3  Differences before the `Uthmanic collection
   3.1  Dictation of the codex compiled under Abu Bakr
   3.2  differences during `Umar's reign
   3.3  differences during `Uthman's time
   3.4  Use of synonyms in different Qur'an versions
   3.5  The seven recensions or modes of the Qur'an
        3.5.1  Equally valid
        3.5.2  Seven codices
        3.5.3  Seven dialects
        3.5.4  Disputes between two Meccans - more than dialect differences
        3.5.5  Which codex is the latest?
       `Uthman's (ie. Zaid's) ?
       `Abdullah's ?
        3.5.6  Between `Abdullah and Zaid
       Qualifications of `Abdullah
       Qualifications of Zaid
        3.5.7  Use and purpose of different recensions
4  The `Uthmanic collection of the Qur'an 
   4.1  Reason for collection - Unity of the Muslims
   4.2  Different reactions to this collection
   4.3  `Uthman allowed variant readings
   4.4  `Uthman's complaint about Zaid's text
   4.5  The destruction of the codex of Hafsa
   4.6  Others
5  Mushaf `Uthmani
   5.1  Some missing verses
        5.1.1  The missing Bismillah
        5.1.2  The Stoning Verse on penalty for adulterers/adulteress
       Source is the sunna (also believed inspired)
       Verse was in Book of God and recited
       The actual words of the stoning verse
       Not added to the mushaf but in margins
       Where it used to be in the Qur'an
       Reasons it was not in the mushaf
       Reconciliation of hadith reports
        5.1.3  The ibn Adam verses
       Recited before `Uthman's collection
       Where it used to be in the Qur'an
        5.1.4  The suckling verse
       Recited before `Uthman's collection
       Effects on Fiqh
        5.1.5  Other missing verses
   5.2  Some variant verses
        5.2.1  The hajj ritual, tawaf
        5.2.2  The penalty for breach of oaths
       The variant
       Various views
        5.2.3  On mut`a marriages
        5.2.4  On Wudu
        5.2.5  Other variants
   5.3  Variant sura orders / number of suras
6  The status of the mushaf
   6.1  The completeness of the mushaf ?
   6.2  The incompleteness of the mushaf
   6.3  Muhammad's forgetting of verses
   6.4  Muslim explanation of variants / missing verses
        6.4.1  Variants are additions/interpolations
        6.4.2  Variants elucidate
        6.4.3  Variants preserve the law
        6.4.4  Naskh (Abrogation and withdrawal)
        6.4.5  Others

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